Memory Center Hekimleri'nin Başarısı

NPGRUP NPiSTANBUL Hastanesi ve Memory Center Nöropsikiyatri Merkezi Psikiyatristlerinin TMU (rTMS) tedavisi hakkındaki araştırmaları uluslararası Klinik Psikiyatri dergisine makale oldu.

Hamile bir "Majör Depresyon" hastasında uygulanan 58 seanslık TMU (rTMS) Tedavisi'nin konu edildiği makale "The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry" dergisinde yayımlandı.

Sözkonusu makalenin orijinal metni:

Antidepressant Effect of 58 Sessions of rTMS in a Pregnant Woman With Recurrent Majör Depressive Disorder: A Case Report

Sir: Repetitivc transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to be effective in depression in many studies. We report the case of a pregnant woman with recurrent majör depressive disorder and panic disorder during her sccond pregnancy who received substantial benefıt from 58 sessions of rTMS during pregnancy before giving birth to a healthy baby. Nineteen more sessions of rTMS were given during lactation.
Case report. Ms. A, a 30-year old in 2007. presented with recuırent majör depressive disorder and panic disorder ac-cording to DSM-IV eriteria. Shc had no other mcdical problem, no personality disorder, and no psyehosocial stressor and had never used substances or alcohol. There was no sig-nificant feature in her family medical history.
She had had 5 episodes of major depression (in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2004). The fırst one in 1995 was the only episode with psychotic features, treated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Between the fırst and second episode, remission had not been attained; therefore, she had had to leave the university because of loss of funetioning. In 1997, she had her second severe depressive episode despite the fact that she had been rcceiving maintenance pharmaco-logic treatment. By aggressive outpatient pharmacotherapy, she attained remission that lasted until 1999, by which time she had married, discontinued her antidepressant medica-tions under the control of a psychiatrist before a planned pregnancy, became pregnant, gave birth to her fırst baby, and lactatcd. Four months after the delivery, when she had been lactating, the third episode occurred in 1999. Having discontinued the lactation, she received pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for 4 years, during which time shc was main-tained in a state of partial recovery until the fourth depressive episode, in 2002. She received her fırst inpatient treatment and underwent 8 sessions of electroconvulsivc therapy (ECT), which alleviated symptoms but did not, however, provide remission.
From the age of 18 to 27 years, she received pharmacotherapy continually except for 1.5 years (during the fırst pregnancy and lactation, 1998-1999), the only period in which remission had been attained. During that 9 years' course of illness, she had received monotherapy with amitriptyline 300 mg daily, sertraline 200 mg daily, and ven-lafaxine 600 mg daily; in addition to antidepressant medi-cations, she had also been treated with zuclopenthixol, risperidone, olanzapine, lithium, thyroid hormone, carba-mazepine, and valproic acid because of psychotic features at the fırst episode and the refractory nature of depression at later times.
In May 2004, the fıfth episode was accompanied by panic attacks. Although she received psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy (fluoxetinc 80 mg daily, elomipramine 150 mg daily, carbamazepine 400 mg daily, quetiapine 25 mg daily, and elonazepam 1.5 mg daily), she did not respond to 6 weeks' treatment and the clinical table continued to follow a very severe course.
Since no classical treatment, ineluding ECT, had been able to provide remission, in June 2004, without cessation of drugs, we began rTMS (Magstim Süper Rapid magnetic stimulator; The Magstim Company Ltd., Spring Gardens, Whitland/Carmarthenshire, Wales, U.K.) över the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The intensity was 110% of the motor threshold, the frequency 25 Hz. 20 trains per session, 50 pulses per each train the duration of each train was 2 sec-onds followcd by an interval of 28 seconds. Safcty eriteria reported by Wasserman' were exceeded because another study by our group2 and our unpublished data on 178 pa-tients (O.T., A.C., N.T., et al, 2004 2006) exceeding these eriteria have produced satisfactory and safe results.
Scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) by rTMS sessions are shown in Table 1 and Figüre 1. After the 15th session, the diagnosis of pregnancy was made. Forty-scven days had passed after the menstruation. She had been strictly prohibited from getting pregnant for many years because of aggressive and continu-ous pharmacotherapy, and she had reported that shc had been using an effective form of birth control. Before rTMS, a pregnancy test had not been administered, because only 2 weeks had passed after the last menstruation. The patient did not report the delay of the expected menstruation because she ignored it since she sometimes experienced menstruation delay. She preferred to continue pregnancy, stop medi-cations, and receive rTMS following informed consent. She was also under elose obstetric follow-up. Neither matemal nor fetal complication occurred during pregnancy.
Four days after the 58th session, she gave birth to a healthy girl, at the term, in early 2005. The baby weighed 3200 g and was 49 cm tali. Complcte physical and neuro-logic examination, sereening tests for phenylketonuria and hypothyroidism, and hearing assessment of the newborn re-vcalcd no abnormalitics. The newborn did not have congeni-tal hip dysplasia, congenital cardiac disease, cleft lip, or cleft palate. There were no gastrointestinal, pulmonary, or muscular abnormalitics. Twenty days later, we restarted rTMS to prevent depression relapse. She continued lactation.

 

Ms. A responded (response defined as a 50% decrease in HAM-D-17 score) to rTMS at the end of the 50th session (6 months after beginning rTMS, with rTMS given in varying intervals). She attained remission (remission defined as a HAM-D-17 score below 8) at the end of the 68th session, approximately 1 year after beginning rTMS. No seizure or other significant side effect occurred.
Although depression remitted with rTMS, since panic disorder was aggravated, the patient began treatment with fluoxetine (which was inereased to 80 mg daily) once she stopped lactating 8 months after the delivery.
The patient received 35 sessions of rTMS in the fırst trimester, 15 sessions in the second trimester, 8 sessions in the third trimester (for a total of 58 sessions during the pregnancy), and 19 sessions during 7.5 months after the delivery. Depression was stili in remission 22 months after the delivery. Panic disorder, followed up with no clinical scale, de-creased during pregnancy and postpartum 6 months, but then recurred.
The child's physical development and neurologic devel-opment were normal through 22 months; there was no diagnosis of disease, except a viral upper respiratory infection lasting a few days.
rTMS has been shown to be useful in the treatment of depression.4"10 A pregnant woman receiving rTMS in the second trimester has been reported in another study.11 Our patient received rTMS in ali trimesters.
Varying of intervals between rTMS sessions was due to the patient's request and also regarding the literatüre reporting that daily stimulation is not essential.12-14 It seems that although rTMS is effective, a greater number of sessions or sessions of longer durations than those reported in previous studies are needed to produce significant results. On the other hand, rTMS given at intervals may be useful to improve and maintain the mood.11-12 Furthennore, even if rTMS is not useful in the acute treatment, improvement in mood may be observed a few months later.12
Although the fact that response and remission took nearly a year is more consistent with the natural history of depression than with a therapeutic response to rTMS, our patient's history of depression had tended to follow a ehronic and recurrent course in that she had rcceived pharmacotherapy and psyeho-therapy for a long time and underwent ECT without any significant recovery except during her first planned pregnancy and lactation. It may be suspccted that pregnancy itself might have resulted in remission of depressive symptoms. However, con-trary to clinical lore, pregnancy is not always a time of emotional well-being; pregnant and nonpregnant women have simi-lar rates of depression.15 Furthcrmore, our patient's first pregnancy had not resulted in remission; on the contrary, her first pregnancy was a planned pregnancy that occurred after remission, and depression subsequently recurred during lactation.
Finally, a few studies have employed rTMS in a small number of patients with panic disorder.16-17 It seems that rTMS parameters given in depression may not prevent relapses in panic disorder.
The authors report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this letter.
References
1. MVasscrman, EM. Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, June 5-7, 1996. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998:108:1-16
2. Tarhan N. Tan O. Baripoglu SK, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depression. Presented in the 6th annual confer-cncc of thc EEG and Clinical Ncuroscicncc Socicty (ECNS) and Joint Meeting with the International Society for Neuroimaging in Psychiatry (ISNIP); Sept 29-Oct 2, 2004; Calif. Abstract pubİished in thc EEG and Clinical Ncuroscicncc Socictv (ECNS) Journal 2004:35:4
3. Hamil ton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960:23:56 62
4. Avery DH. Holtzheimer PE 3rd. Fawaz W, et al. A controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in medication-resistant majör depression. Biol Psychiatry 2006;59:187-194
5. Rossini D, Lucca A, Zanardi R. et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depressed patients: a double-blind. placebo-conrrolled trial. Psychiatry Res 2005;137:1-10
6. Fitzgerald PB. Brown TL, Marston NA. ct al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a double-blind. placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60: 1002 1008
7. George MS, Nahas Z, Molloy M, et al. A controlled trial of daily left prefrontal cortex TMS for treating depression. Biol Psychiatry 2000:48:962-970
8. Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B. Pallardo F. et al. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression. Lancet 1996;348:233-237
9. George MS, Wassermann EM, Kimbrell TA, et al. Mood improve-ment following daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a placebo-conrrolled cross-ovcr trial. Am J Psychiatry 1997:154:1752- 1756
10. Avery DH, Claypoole K, Robinson L. et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of medication-resistant depression: prcliminary data. J Ncrv Mcnt Dis 1999:187:114-117
11. Nahas Z, Bohning DE, Molloy MA, et al. Safety and feasibility of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of anxious depression in pregnaney: a casc report. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:50-52
12. Koerselman E Laman DM. van Duijn H. et al. A 3-month. follow-up, randomized, placebo-controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression. .1 Clin Psychiatry 2004;65: 1323-1328
13. LI X, Nahas Z, Anderson B, et al. Can left prefrontal rTMS be uscd as a maintenance treatment for bipolar depression? Dcprcss Anxiety 2004;20:98-100
14. 0*Reardon JP, Blumner KH, Peshek AD, et al. Long-term maintenance therapy for majör depressive disorder with rTMS. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66:1524-1528
15. Gotlib IH. Whiffen WE, Mount JH. et al. Prevalence rates and demographic characteristics associatcd with depression in pregnaney and the postpartum. J Consult Clin Psychol 1989;57: 269-274
16. Garcia-Toro M, Salva Coll J, Crespi Font M, et al. Panic disorder and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2002;30:221-224
17. Sakkas P, Psarros C, Papadimitrou GN, et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a patient suffering from comorbid depression and panic disorder following a myocardial infaretion. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006;30:960-962

Oğuz Tan, M.D.
Nevzat Tarhan, M.D.
Adnan Çoban, M.D.
Semra Kaya Baripoglu, M.D.
Funda Guducu, M.D.
Hasan Basri Izgi, M.D.
Gokben Hizli, M.D.
Oznur Ates, M.D.
Hüseyin Bulut, M.D.
Memory Center Neuropsychiatry Clinic Istanbul, Turkey

 

 

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